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4. Evidence Source

PRIORITY POPULATIONS

No

Citation / Evidence

Detail of citation, evidence to support

People who are socially isolated

51

Trevorrow & Moore 1998

The association between loneliness, social isolation and women's electronic gaming machine gambling.

52

DOJ 2009 (Hare), A Study of Gambling in Victoria – Problem Gambling from a Public Health Perspective

The age at which moderate risk and problem gamblers started gambling for money was measured in the study; 50.01% started at age 18-24 years and 20.69% started under the age of 18 (Exec Summary, p.20).

53

GRA 2010, A Review of Australian Gambling Research

Age differences (S. 2.9). Adolescent Gambling: Links adolescent gambling to subsequent gambling during adulthood (S. 2.9.1, p.76).

54

WIRE 2008, Opening Doors to Women

The research demonstrates a link between problem gambling and the social isolation of women (Exec Summary, Key Findings p.4).

55

Darebin 2005, Pokie-free Places and Activities

Consultations identified key reasons for participation by CALD communities in poker-machine gambling including social isolation and being disconnected from mainstream community (S.3.3).

Socio-economic disadvantage

56

DOJ 2009 (Hare), A Study of Gambling in Victoria –Problem Gambling from a Public Health Perspective

Problem gamblers more likely to have a low-medium income, unemployment was not significant (p. 87, Table 21)

57

BNPCA 2009, Health Promotion Resource Guide for Problem Gambling Prevention

Identifies vulnerable groups, including people on low incomes (S. 2.1).

58

DoJ 2009 The Health Promotion Resource Kit for Problem Gambling

Identifies vulnerable groups (Part 3, p.32)

59

ANU 2004, Gaming Machine Accessibility and Use in Suburban Canberra

High rates of EGM participation were found amongst pension recipients and low income earners (S.6.2.6).

60

Productivity Commission Report on Gambling (PC) 2010

The magnitude of gambling expenditure (losses) relative to the income of problem gamblers is relevant to the harms caused to them and their families (p. 5.31 Prevalence)

61

The Office of Liquor, Gambling and Racing

Responsible for implementing a range of the government's responsible gambling initiatives, to help reduce harm caused by excessive gambling, including regional caps on EGMs.

Cultural background

62

DOJ 2009 (Hare), A Study of Gambling in Victoria – Problem Gambling from a Public Health Perspective

Higher proportion of problem gamblers in Victoria are Indigenous (p.90-126).

63

GRA 2010, A Review of Australian Gambling Research

Indigenous persons and CALD communities may be more susceptible to gambling (S. 2.10 and 2.11).

64

CEH Multicultural Gambler's Help 2008, Problem Gambling in New and Emerging Refugee Communities

There is a lack of knowledge and preparedness for gambling amongst some CALD communities (p.15).

65

CEH Community Profiles: Chinese Community and International Students

Chinese community: Cultural association with gambling, but risk factors increase gambling frequency in Australia. At-risk group due to presence of stressors related to migration (employment, finance, social relationships) and difficulty accessing services. International students: see 70 below.

66

PC Report on Gambling 2010

A culturally appropriate approach to gambling services provision for Indigenous communities

(Box 7.1, p.7.12)

Young people and Students

67

DOJ 2009 (Hare), A Study of Gambling in Victoria – Problem Gambling from a Public Health Perspective

The age at which moderate risk and problem gamblers started gambling for money was measured in the study; 50.01% started at age 18-24 years and 20.69% started under the age of 18 (Exec Summary, p.20). Fact Sheet 6 – higher proportion of moderate risk gamblers in 18-24 age group.

68

Ohtsuka, Keis and Maddern, Robyn 1999, Youth gambling in Australia (1996-97)

High percentage of young Australians gamble, but small number of young people who acknowledge their gambling problem. This study finds that the social culture of gambling in Australia means that more young people gamble earlier. Most young people started gambling socially with their families.

69

Lambos and Delfabbro 2007, Adolescent Gambling in South Australia

High participation rate of young males in gambling activity.

Many young people do not accurately understand the true odds of gambling activities and are likely to overestimate the probability of winning.

70

CEH, Community Profile: International Students

International students have lower levels of participation in gambling than domestic students, but display higher levels of problem gambling behaviour. They also have a higher weekly expenditure on gambling and difficulty accessing services.

People with co-morbidities

71

DOJ 2009 (Hare), A Study of Gambling in Victoria – Problem Gambling from a Public Health Perspective

Problem gamblers more likely to report a major illness, depression, anxiety, mental health issue and dependence on alcohol or smoking (p.184-223).

72

PC Report on Gambling 2010

Mental health issues and gambling (p.3.12).

73

SACES 2005, Community Impacts of EGM Gambling (Victoria and Western Australia)

Gambling and health (Ch.8).

74

Thomas, S.A. and Jackson, A.C. (2008). Risk and Protective Factors, Depression and Comorbidities in Problem Gambling

Summary of the outcomes of the review of cultural factors and problem gambling (p.22).

Lack of financial resilience

75

DOJ 2009 (Hare), A Study of Gambling in Victoria – Problem Gambling from a Public Health Perspective

Problem gamblers more likely to have had major financial change in the past year and identify it as a trigger for gambling problems (p.184-223).

76

PC Report on Gambling 2010

The major contributor to harm is the large financial losses experienced by problem gamblers (Overview, Gambling 16).

77

Centre for Full Employment and Equity (COFFEE)

Identifies areas of financial stress.

78

Institute for Sensible Transport, 2010, Oil Vulnerability in Melbourne Report

Identifies areas vulnerable to financial stress.

79

SACES 2005, Community Impacts of EGM Gambling (Victoria and Western Australia)

Bankruptcy, crime and gambling (Ch.9).

80

AIHW 2009, Problem Gambling among those Seeking Homelessness Services

Homelessness and problem gambling linkages.

81

Lakeside Hotel, Pakenham VCGR Decision

At 124: People in the outer suburbs are burdened with high work-related transport costs.

82

Bridge Inn, Mernda VCGR Decision 2008

At 119: Areas which have a higher rate of people purchasing their homes are financially vulnerable.

People with intellectual disabilities

83

DoJ 2009 The Health Promotion Resource Kit for Problem Gambling

Identifies priority populations, including people with intellectual disabilities(Part 3). This resource is currently being reviewed, New link to follow in 2011.

Problem gamblers

84

Abbott 2006 Do Egms and Problem Gambling Go Together Like a Horse and Carriage?

Participation in gambling activities is a necessary condition for the development of gambling problems, just as alcohol consumption is required for the development of alcohol problem (p.3)

85

Dickson-Gillespie et al 2008, Preventing the Incidence and Harm of Gambling Problems

Explores models of prevention including the risk and protective factors model, levels of prevention and the public health perspective.

86

DOJ 2010 (Thomas), Problem Gambling Vulnerability

Key Findings (p.xii)

87

PC Report on Gambling 2010

The most notable form of consumer vulnerability is 'problem' gambling (Section 3, p.3.8)

Location Factors - Previous - Next Impacts (Positive)

Darebin
humecity
melbcity
moreland
whittlesea
yarra
nepcp
humewhittlesea
innernorthwest